The transportation of goods and people via inland waterways has lost its position in Pakistan during the last decades due to the development of land transport systems and the prioritization of other uses of waterways. Despite a series of studies and even pilot projects in the past, inland waterways transport (IWT) has got very limited attention at high political level to make things happen. No entity is currently responsible for IWT development in Pakistan and a regulatory authority for the sector does not exist. Many countries have successfully revived their inland waterway systems after decades of neglect, and the question comes up whether Pakistan can do the same and revive this low-cost, natural, high-capacity, and clean and safe mode of transport. Although the waterways in Pakistan have their own characteristics and specifics, valuable lessons can be learnt from other countries. The growing attention for IWT has to do with the many advantages and the great contributions that it can offer for the national and local economies, environment, and the role it can play in realizing a better-balanced transport matrix, relieving congestion on roads. Transport via the waterways offers societal benefits; its emissions, energy use, accident rates, and noise per ton and ton-kilometer are lower compared with those of alternative systems. In addition, IWT is the safest way to transport (hazardous) cargoes. When designed appropriately, inland waterways transport fits neatly into modern multimodal supply chains, offering attractive solutions to shippers and alternative hinterland connectivity for seaports. IWT supports economic development along the waterways, providing jobs and income for people and thus local / regional societies.